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Titanic - A Night To Remember
Titanic Timeline
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Titanic Timeline

 
 
 
The Construction
 

1850 

White Star Lines is founded. It is registered in Liverpool as The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, Ltd., it's legal name.

1867

White Star Lines is purchased by Thomas Henry Ismay, father of J. Bruce Ismay, for 1000 British Pounds. Agreements are reached with Gutsav Schwabe to bankroll White Star, provided Harland and Wolff are contracted to build all new White Star liners. 

1891

J. Bruce Ismay is admitted into the White Star Partnership.

1892

Thomas Ismay retires, leaving Bruce as Chairman.

1902

American financier J. Pierpoint Morgan's International Mercantile Marine Co. (IMM) buys White Star Lines for 10 million Pounds. J. Bruce Ismay remains Chairman and Managing Director. 

1904

Bruce Ismay, at age 41, is named President of IMM.

Bruce J. Ismay

Summer, 1907

J. Bruce Ismay and Lord James Pirrie, a partner in Harland and Wolff, meet at a dinner party at Pirrie's residence in London. They begin to formulate plans for 2 ocean liners that will surpass anything built to date. The names OLYMPIC and TITANIC are chosen as well. Sometime later, a third ship called Gigantic is added to the plans. 

June, 1907 

J. Bruce Ismay meets with the New York Harbor Board to construct a pier long enough to accommodate a ship the proposed size of Titanic and Olympic. About the same time, Lord Pirrie instructs the Harland and Wolff architects be begin preliminary designs on Olympic and Titanic, and begins plans to enlarge the Belfast shipyards to berth ships of such size. 

July, 1907

Construction begins at Harland and Wolff's yards to combine 3 slips into 2 slips with a 220 foot high gantry, the largest ever built.

July 29, 1908

Ismay and Pirrie, among others, meet at Harland and Wolff to view the plans for Olympic and Titanic.

July 31, 1908

White Star Lines and Harland and Wolff sign the building contract for Olympic ,Titanic, and Gigantic (later renamed Britannic).

Dec. 16, 1908

The keel plate (number 400) for Olympic is laid at Harland and Wolff's Belfast yard.

Mar. 31, 1909

The keel plate for Titanic (number 401) is laid. 

Oct. 20, 1910

Olympic's hull is launched and towed to the fitting out basin.

May 31, 1911
12:13pm 

Titanic's 26,000 ton hull is launched at Harland and Wolff's shipyard, watched by over 100,000 people. She reached a speed of 12 knots before 6 anchor chains and 2 piles of cable drag chains weighing 80 ton's each brought her to a halt. As was White Star's practice, there was no christening. 

3:00pm 

White Star Lines representatives officially take possession of Olympic. Bruce Ismay, J.P. Morgan, and many other VIP's set sail for Liverpool aboard Olympic. Titanic is towed to the fitting out basin. 

Sep. 11, 1911

Olympic departs Southampton on her fifth voyage, commanded by Captain Edward James Smith, who would later take command of Titanic. After noon, while in the Splithead Channel, she collides with the British Cruiser Hawke. Both ships were heavily damaged. 

Feb. 3, 1912

Titanic is dry-docked in the Thompson Graving Dock, where she is fitted with her 3 massive propellers and the final coat of paint is applied to the hull, the final phase of her fitting out. Finishing touches are begun on the interior and the Marconi Radio is installed and tested, and assigned the call letters MGY. 

 
 
 
The Sinking
 

Sunday, April 14, 1912
Early morning 

Titanic continues on course into the heart of the North Atlantic. She covers another 546 miles on this day. 

Mid-morning 

Titanic receives a warning from Caronia of ice ahead. Later, another message from the Dutch liner Noordam also warns of "much ice". 

Early afternoon 

The Baltic reports "large quantities of field ice" 250 miles ahead of Titanic. Capt. Smith would later show this message to Bruce Ismay. One survivor would later account that Smith and Ismay talked at lunch about making New York a day early and grabbing headlines. Another message is received from Amerika warning of icebergs, but this message is not forwarded to Capt. Smith. 

6:00pm 

Capt. Smith alters course to South 86 West True, heading southwest of original course, but maintains full speed. 

 Captain Smith

7:30pm

The Californian sends a third message warning of ice 50 miles ahead of Titanic.

9:20pm 

After meeting with Second Officer Lightoller and discussing the unusually calm seas and clear air, Capt. Smith retires to his room. Officer Lightoller then cautions lookouts to be careful of ice until morning. Titanics' speed at this time is 22 knots. 

 Officer Lightoller

9:40pm 

A heavy ice pack and iceberg warning is received from the Masaba. Wireless Officers Phillips and Bride ignore the message and proceed with sending personal messages from the passengers. 

10:00pm 

Second Officer Lightoller is relieved by First Officer Murdoch. Titanic is running at 22 to 24 knots with 24 of her 29 boilers lit. 

Officer Murdoch

10:55pm

Californian reports they have been stopped by ice 10-20 miles north of Titanic, reported position 40.2N 50.7W. Wireless Officer Phillips tells them "Keep out! Shut up! You're jamming my signal! I'm working Cape Race", and the Californian shuts down their set for the night.

11:30pm

Lookouts Fleet and Lee note a slight haze appearing ahead. Titanic is moving at 24 knots, or 26 MPH, or 2200 feet per minute (1/2 mile).

11:40pm 

Lookout Fleet rings the bridge by telephone yelling "Iceberg right ahead!" and rings the crows nest bell 3 times. Sixth Officer Moody acknowledges and relays the message to Murdock, who orders "Hard-a-starboard" and telegraphs the engine room "Full Stop" followed by "Full Astern". 

 Fredrick Fleet

11:40:40pm 

Titanic begins to turn slowly to port but strikes an underwater spar jutting from the iceberg on the starboard side 12 feet back from the bow. The 1 inch thick plates of steel are scrapped for 300 feet along Titanics' side and 5 to 20 feet below the waterline, buckling or tearing a hole in compartment 1, 2 holes in compartment 2, another hole that crosses the bulkhead 3 between compartments 2 and 3, another across bulkhead 4, and another across bulkhead 5 between boilers 5 and 6 and stoke hold 9. Water pressure from outside is pumping water in at the rate of 7 tons per minute (almost 2000 gallons). 

11:40:50pm

First Officer Murdoch orders "Full to Port", trying to corner Titanic around the remainder of the iceberg. He also throws the electric switch closing the water-tight compartment doors. Passengers on the upper decks see the iceberg as Titanic passes by.

11:43pm 

Capt. Smith arrives on the bridge and orders Thomas Andrews, Chief Wilde, and Officer Boxhall to go below and inspect the damage. 

 Thomas Andrews

11:55pm 

The post office on G deck is flooded, trapping and drowning several workers. Thomas Andrews reports that 5 compartments are flooded to the waterline and advises Capt. Smith that Titanic can float with 4 compartments filled, but not 5. 

12:00am 

Officer Boxhall takes Titanics' last position (41.46' N, 50.14' W), which Capt. Smith takes to the wireless room and orders the distress call CQD. 

 Officer Boxhall

12:05am 

The squash court on D deck is now flooded. Titanics' bow is only 15 feet above the 28 degree water. The engine crew has started shutting down the boilers. Capt. Smith orders the lifeboats uncovered and life belts distributed. 25 minutes after the collision, 140 tons of freezing water now fill the forward compartments and begins to overflow bulkhead 6, which only goes up to E deck, and flood the adjoining compartments. 

12:07am

Cunard liner Carpathia responds to Titanics' distress calls. She is 58 miles southeast of Titanic and will take over 4 hours to arrive.

12:15am 

Wallace Hartley and his band begins playing ragtime music in the First Class Lounge on A deck. 

Wallace Hartley

12:25am 

Capt. Smith orders the life boats filled, women and children first. First Officer Lightoller commands the lowering crews, forward boats first and moving afterward. 

12:45am 

Lifeboat 7 is launched from the starboard side with 27 people. It can hold 65. Quartermaster George Rowe fires the first distress rocket under direction of Officer Boxhall. The rockets are fired from the bridge railing in the Boat Deck, near Emergency boat 1. Aboard the Californian, Chief Officer Stone reports seeing rockets 10 miles to starboard to Captain Lord, who then ordered him to try contacting the ship by Morse lamp, NOT wireless (this was later disputed by Captain Lord during the official investigations). 

12:50am 

Officer Boxhall sights a vessel (possibly the Californian) off in the distance, but all attempts to reach her with Morse lamps are futile and she disappears. 

12:55am 

Lifeboat 5 is launched from the starboard side with 40 people. Lifeboat 6 is launched from the port side with 25 people. 

1:00am

Lifeboat 3 is launched from the port side with 32 people (including 11 crew members).

1:10am

Lifeboat 8 is launched from the port side with 27 people. Emergency boat 1 is launched from the starboard side with 12 people. It can hold 40.

1:15am

Capt. Smith tries to recall the half full lifeboats, but none return. Titanics' name painted on the bow is now at the waterline and water is beginning to flow over the top of the bulkhead 8 at Deck E. Californian Officers Stone and Gibson see several rockets and report them to Captain Lord (who later denied this account) and try repeatedly to signal a distant ship with Morse lamps.

1:20am

Lifeboat 10 is launched from the port side with 47 people. About this time, Thomas Andrews is seen staring at a painting in the First Class Smoking Room. He does not reply when asked to leave.

1:25am 

Panic is setting in as Lifeboat 14 is launched from the starboard side with 54 people, including Officer Lowe, who fires 3 shots in the air from his pistol to keep passengers on the lower deck from jumping onto the boat. Lifeboat 16 is launched from the port side with 42 people. 

 Officer Harold Lowe

1:30am 

Lifeboat 12 is launched from the port side with 32 people and Lifeboat 9 is launched from the starboard side with 48 people. Titanic begins to list to starboard while her decks get continually steeper. 

1:35am 

Lifeboat 11 is launched from the starboard side with 56 people. Wireless operator Phillips sends his last message, then abandons the radio room and heads for the aft deck. 

1:40am 

Lifeboat 13 is launched from the starboard side with 54 people and Lifeboat 15 is launched with 57 people. Collapsible boat C is launched from the starboard side with 32 people (including White Star Chairman J. Bruce Ismay). It can hold 49 and is the last boat lowered to the water on this side of the ship. 

1:45am

Emergency boat 2 is launched from the port side with 20 people (it can hold 40).

1:50am

Lifeboat 4 is launched from the port side with 34 people.

2:00am 

The water has risen to just 10 feet below the Promenade Deck and the bow railings are now under water. About this time, Capt. Smith is last seen standing on the flooding bridge. Wallace Hartley's band begins their last song, "Nearer, My God, To Thee". 

2:05am 

Collapsible boat D is lowered from the port side with 44 people. This is the last boat to be lowered from the deck of Titanic.  Some survivors reported that an officer (possibly Murdoch) shot at rushing passengers, hitting at least one, then turned the gun on himself. There are still over 1500 people left aboard Titanic as water pours over the forward section of A deck. Remaining passengers climb to the aft section, which has now started to rise out of the water. 


from "Titanic"

2:10am 

Collapsible boats A and B are freed from their tie downs but the rising water sweeps them off the deck. Passengers are seen jumping from the aft Steerage Loading door to the freezing water 100 feet below. Titanics' propellers are now completely out of the water. 

2:15am 

Father Thomas Byles gives confession to passengers gathered on the aft end of the Boat Deck. Loud crashes are heard as objects in the interior of the ship slide toward the submerged bow. 

2:18am 

The lights flicker once, then go out as the electric generators fail. Titanics' hull splits from the deck to the keel between the 3rd and 4th funnels. The stern section falls back to the water, then rises again as the bow breaks off and begins it's decent. 


from "Titanic"

2:20am 

The stern section floods and goes down "like an elevator", 2 hours and 30 minutes after the collision. Over 1500 remaining passengers plunge into the icy water. Aboard the Californian, Officers Stone and Gibson watch as a distant ship apparently travels beyond the horizon. 

2:21am 

About 20 people in the water climb into the partially submerged Collapsible A and another 30 climb atop the overturned Collapsible B. Anyone in the 28 degree water is now suffering from shock and the onset of hypothermia. The stern section implodes 200 feet down due to external pressure and nowhere for the trapped air to go. 

2:25am 

After 4 minutes in the freezing water, and assuming an average body weight of 140 pounds, most people in the water are experiencing numbing of the extremities, shortness of breath, tunnel vision, and absolute terror. These assumptions are based on medical reports of hypothermia victims. 

2:28am 

About this time, the bow crashes on the bottom 12,600 feet below. Titanic lands intact and upright, sinking 20-25 feet into the mud. Since it was flooded when it sank, the pressure equalized and it didn't suffer the implosion that the stern did. 

Current position: 41°43'57"N 49°56'49"W (13.5 miles from last reported position). 

2:30am 

After 10 minutes in the water, the average person is shivering uncontrollably, unable to speak coherently, and unable to process any information. They are running on pure instinct, trying to survive at any cost, and climbing atop one another to get out of the water. Children at this point have lost consciousness. 

2:31am 

The stern hits the bottom, 2000 feet (1/3 mile) away from the bow. 
Current position: 41°43'35"N 49°56'54"W

2:35am

Most adults have quit trying to swim, just staying afloat with their lifebelts. The screams have begun to subside as people begin to slip into unconsciousness.

2:50am 

Most people in the water are dead or unconscious by now, having succumbed to hypothermia after 30 minutes in the 28 degree water. Survivors in the lifeboats are huddled together for warmth, some rowing to keep warm. 

3:00am 

Officers and crew members begin to gather the boats together. Some survivors are transferred from Lifeboat 14 to the others, then Officer Lowe heads for the people in the water looking for other survivors. 6 people are pulled from the water, barely alive. 14 people are pulled from the partially submerged Collapsible A, then it's cast adrift with 3 dead bodies (I have not found a verifiable report that Collapsible A was ever found again). Lifeboats 4 and 12 rescue 28 survivors from overturned Collapsible B. 

3:30am

Carpathia's rockets are sighted.

4:10am

Lifeboat 2 arrives at the Carpathia.

4:45am

Lifeboat 13 arrives at the Carpathia.

5:10am

Lifeboat 5 arrives at the Carpathia.

5:30am 

Aboard the Californian, Captain Lord arrives on the bridge and asks about the ship from last night. Officer Stewart points out the ship, noting that there are no signals now (what they saw was the Carpathia). Captain Lord awakes Wireless Officer Evans and asks him to turn on the wireless and find out any information. After being advised of Titanics' sinking by the Frankfort, Californian heads for the site at full steam to assist with rescue operations. 

6:00am

Lifeboats 3 and 6 arrive at the Carpathia.

6:30am

Collapsible C arrives at the Carpathia with J. Bruce Ismay aboard.

7:00am 

Collapsible D arrives at the Carpathia. 

8:00am

Lifeboat 11 arrives at the Carpathia.

8:20am

Californian arrives.

8:30am 

Lifeboat 12 arrives at the Carpathia. Officer Lightoller is the last survivor to come aboard. 

8:50am 

Carpathia leaves for New York with 705 survivors aboard. Californian is asked to stay and search for bodies from the water. Both ships are flying their flags at half-mast. 

9:00am
approx. 

J. Bruce Ismay sends the following to the White Star Lines New York office: "Deeply regret advise you Titanic sank this morning after collision with iceberg, resulting in serious loss of life. Full particulars later." Titanic Wireless Officer Bride volunteers to help in the transmitting of survivor lists and messages to families to the mainland. 

11:00am

Californian leaves the area bound for Boston.

 Titanics' Current Position:

Wreckage Location

Titanic Timeline provided by:
NightWing® Publishing 1996-2001
E-mail Address: imacmike1@cox.net
 

 

 

 As I look back on history, I remember learning about Titanic, and how much of an impact it had on my life. I have studied this shipwreck for 25 years, and I am in tune with every fabric of this monumental moment in time. I hope you have enjoyed a trip through time, and remembering all the souls lost in that devastating event in history.

May God Bless Them all, and May God Bless You All.

 

 

Titanic's Bow Today
titbow.jpg

Maiden Voyage

Tuesday, April 2, 1912

Titanic sets sail from Belfast and begins her sea trials. The most significant of these trials was a full speed turn, which encompassed a circle of 3,850 feet in diameter and total forward movement of 2,100 feet. This means at 22 knots, it took Titanic 4 tenths of a mile to turn 90 degrees. Board of Trade surveyor Francis Carruthers approved the tests and White Star took possession of Titanic. A small fire started in boiler room 6 that would smolder for weeks in the coal dust of the starboard bunker. 

Friday, April 5
12:15am 

Titanic arrives at the Southampton dock dressed in flags and pennants. She was berthed in slip 44. 

Saturday, April 6

Crew hiring begins at the White Star halls and the Union halls. Hundreds of people jammed the halls hoping for a job after the coal strike, which ended the same day. Loading of cargo also begins. Crews begin loading the 5,800 tons of coal needed for the voyage. 

Sunday, April 7

Crews finish loading 4,427 tons of coal into Titanics' coal bunkers. Then work ceased for the day, in honor of Easter. 

Monday, April 8

Fresh food is loaded into the huge storerooms. 75,000 lbs. of meat, 11,000 lbs. of fish, and 1,750 quarts of ice cream are loaded into the refrigerated storerooms on G deck aft. 

Tuesday, April 9

Board of Trade surveyor Captain Clark completes the final inspection of Titanic. Captain E.J. Smith also performed his own inspection with Second Officer Charles Lightoller and builder Thomas Andrews. All officers except Capt. Smith slept this night on Titanic. 

 Captain Edward J. Smith

Wednesday, April 10
7:30am 

Capt. Smith boards Titanic and receives the sailing report from Chief Henry Wilde. Bruce Ismay boards sometime after breakfast and tours the finished ship. 

9:30am 

The first train with First, Second, and Third Class passengers arrives from Waterloo Station. Capt. George Bower, Titanics' Pilot, boards and the pilot's flag is run up the flagpole. 

11:45am

Titanics' siren sounds, signaling her departure.

12:05pm 

Titanics' mooring ropes are cleared and tug boats begin towing her from the dock. Movement of Titanics' huge mass in the harbor causing all 6 mooring ropes of the liner New York to snap. The New York swings towards Titanic and the tug Vulcan catches her bow and narrowly avoids a collision. After some delay, Titanic is towed from the harbor and begins the 24 mile crossing of the English Channel. 

5:30pm 

Titanic arrives at Cherbourg, France, with all lights blazing. Passengers board tenders and are ferried to Titanic. 

8:30pm 

Titanics' anchor is raised and she set sail for Queenstown, Ireland, around the southern coast of England. 

Thursday, April 11
Early morning 

Thomas Andrews and the 9 member "guarantee group" from Harland and Wolff's yards hold a full dress drill of the water-tight safety doors. 

 Thomas Andrews

11:30am 

Titanic lowers anchor in Queenstown Harbour 2 miles from land. Tenders America and Ireland deliver more passengers and mail. 

1:30pm 

Titanics' starboard anchor is raised for the last time, and she sets sail for New York. 

2:30pm 

The ships pilot, Capt. Bower, is dropped off at the Daunt light-ship. 

Late afternoon 

Titanic passes the Old Head of Kinsale' and blows her whistles at waving visitors. She then heads out to open sea. 

Friday, April 12
Daybreak 

Titanic is well on her way out to the North Atlantic, running at 21 knots. She covered 386 miles on her first day at sea. 

Afternoon 

Titanic receives many wireless messages of congratulations, most including warnings of ice. Some passengers noted that the wind was very cold and preferred to stay inside. 

Late evening 

Titanics' Marconi Wireless Radio failed. Wireless Officers Phillips and Bride worked through the night to repair it. 

 

 

 

Wireless Officers Phillips and Bride

Jack Philips  Harold Bride

Saturday, April 13
10:30am 

Capt. Smith began his daily inspection of the ship. During his inspection of the engine room, Chief Engineer Bell reports the fire in boiler room 6 is finally extinguished, however the bulkhead part of the bunker shows signs of heat damage. Capt. Smith ordered oil to be rubbed on the damaged 1 inch think steel. 

Noon

Titanic had covered 519 miles in the last 24 hours.

The Aftermath

April 18, 1912
9:00pm 

Carpathia arrives in New York with Titanics'  705 survivors. Californian arrives sometime the same day in Boston. 

April 19, 1912

American hearings investigating the disaster begin at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York. Californian Officer Gibson sells his story to the local papers, detailing how officers aboard Californian saw the rockets and reported then to Captain Lord, who failed to take prompt action. Although many aspects of his story are denied by other officers, the press blames Captain Lord for the disaster. 

April 22, 1912

The S.S. Macay Bennet is sent from New York to recover the last of the bodies. 328 bodies are recovered by May 15. 

May 2, 1912

The British Inquiry into the disaster begins. 

May 25, 1912

The U.S. investigation ends, with no clear fault for the disaster found. Captain Lord of the Californian is found negligent and blamed for the great loss of life, having not responded to reports of rockets by his officers. 

July 3, 1912

The British Inquiry ends. Although no clear blame for the disaster is decided, Captain Lord is described as "negligent" in his handling of the rocket reports from his officers. Thomas Ryan files a claim of negligence causing the death of his son Patrick Ryan against The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, Ltd., in the Kings Bench Division of the Royal Court, case number 1111. The claim mentions lack of binoculars for the lookouts, insufficient lifeboats, and excessive speed through an icefield as contributing to the death of Mr Ryan.

April, 1913

As a result of the U.S. and British inquiries, the International Ice Patrol is created to locate and break up large icebergs in the north Atlantic. New regulations are passed for Marconi Wireless Operations, namely that all ship-board radios will be manned 24 hours a day. 

Feb. 26, 1914

Britannic, the 3rd of White Star's Olympic Class, is launched. At 48,158 registered gross tons, she was bigger than her sister ships, Olympic and Titanic. This increased size was due to new safety features added to the hull after Titanic sank. 

Nov. 13, 1915

At the start of WW1, Britannic is recommissioned as a hospital ship. Her nearly completed interior staterooms are refitted as operating rooms. She was declared fit for war duty on Dec. 12, 1915. 

Dec. 12, 1915

Britannic arrives in Liverpool under heavy armored escort.  She was outfitted for her duties as a hospital ship with 2034 berths and 1035 cots for casualties. A medical staff of 52 officers, 101 nurses, 336 orderlies, and a crew of 675 men and women. The ship was under the command of Captain Charles A. Bartlett. 

Dec. 23, 1915

Britannic departs Liverpool on her maiden voyage.  She was bound for Mudros on the Isle of Lemnos. She was joining the Mauritania, Aquitania, and her sister, Olympic, in the Dardanelles (part of Turkey) Service. Joined later by the Statendam the five ships together were capable of carrying 17,000 sick and wounded or 33,000 troops. 

Nov. 21,1916

On her 6th voyage, Britannic hits a German mine while steaming through the Kea Channel in the Aegian Sea off the coast of Greece and sinks in only 55 minutes. The explosion apparently occurred at the watertight bulkhead between holds 2 and 3. At the same time, boiler rooms 5 and 6 began taking water. This was roughly the same damage as that sustained by her sister the Titanic. With 1100 people onboard, only 30 are lost when 2 lifeboats are launched while the ship is still under way and are sucked into the the propellers. On a special note, Violet Jessup was onboard assigned as a nurse. She was also on the crew of the Olympic when it collided with the Hawke, AND she was onboard the Titanic as a stewardess. She was a survivor of the lifeboat incident above. 

July 17, 1918

While traveling in convoy to Boston, Carpathia is struck by 2 German U-boat torpedoes 170 miles from Bishop's rock off of the Isles of Scilly. As the crew were manning the lifeboats, the ship was struck by a third torpedo. Five crew members were killed instantly. The remainder of the crew and Carpathia's 57 passengers were picked up by the HMS Snowdrop and returned to Liverpool. The Carpathia sank at 12:40 AM on that morning. 

1934

The U.S. Federal Communications Commission is founded and set in charge of U.S. wireless and radio regulations. 

March, 1935

The Olympic is retired and sold for scrap.

1953

An expedition is mounted to find Titanic using explosives to obtain echo profiles of the sea bottom. Nothing is found. 

1955

Walter Lord writes the best-seller A Night To Remember with extensive interviews of the survivors. 

1980 - 1983

Several failed attempts to locate Titanic are mounted.

July 1, 1985

French research vessel Le Suriot searches for Titanic using side scanning sonar with no results. 

Sep. 1, 1985 
1:05am 

The Woods Hole Institute expedition aboard the research vessel Knorr, commanded by Robert Ballard, finds the debris field and follows it into the wreck site. Ballard uses 2 sonar guided video remote vehicles, Argo and Angus.

Titanic today: 

July 9, 1986

Ballard returns to the wreck aboard Atlantis II with the submersible Alvin and the remote vehicle Jason. The first clear pictures of Titanic in 74 years are taken. The ROV Jason takes pictures and explores the remains of the grand staircase and ballroom. Ballard says he will not disturb the site in any way and leaves a bronze plaque honoring the dead on the forward A Deck. 

1987

The U.S. Senate passes a bill stating that "no Titanic artifacts may be imported into the United States", a weak attempt at curbing salvage operations. 

July 22, 1987

IFREMER's mother ship Nadir, successfully launched the deep sea submersible Nautile, on 32 consecutive dives to the wreck site. Using a remote controlled robot similar to Jason Jr. called 
Robin, Nautile recorded new photos and video never before seen. 

June 30, 1991
to July 17 

A Canadian-Russian team explores Titanic and films "Titanica" with the new IMAX camera. 

1993

The R.M.S. Titanic Inc. Expedition with submersible Nautile spends 15 days at the wreck site and recovers some 800 artifacts.

1994

R.M.S. Titanic Inc. returns with Nautile and recovers coal from the debris field.

1995

James Cameron and crew begin filming "Titanic" using 2 submersibles Mir1 and Mir2 aboard the research ship Keldysh.

Aug. 1996

The Discovery Channel and R.M.S. Titanic Inc. returns lead by George Tulloch. The Kilabuk, Nadir, and Ocean Voyager are the ships used for this expedition.The expedition tries and fails to retrieve a piece of the hull. Using the submersible Nautile, the expedition recovers artifacts and relics from the debris field between the two main hull sections. Using new side-scan sonar technology, they also uncover evidence that the iceberg that Titanic struck 85 years ago did NOT rip a 300 foot gash in the hull, but rather several small holes and separated the inch thick steel plates at the rivet lines across the first five bulkheads. 

Dec. 19, 1997

"Titanic" opens in theaters to rave reviews and stays the #1 box-office draw for 16 weeks. 

Mar. 1998

"Titanic" becomes the highest grossing movie in Hollywood history (2 billion U.S. dollars world-wide) and wins the Oscars for Best Movie, Best Film Editing, Best Original Score, Best Original Song (My Heart Will Go On), Best Visual Effects, Best Sound Editing, and Best Costume. James Cameron wins Best Director. 

Aug. 10, 1998

R.M.S. Titanic Inc. brings a hull section to the surface and aboard the Abeille. This is the same section they failed to raise in the 1996 expedition. 

The 17 tons of steel hull measure 7.3 meters wide by nearly six meters at its longest point. It was once First Class cabin C86, home to Walter and Mahala Douglas. The two portholes visible in the above photo are intact, the inch thick glass and brass fittings still in place. 

Photo courtesy Discovery Online

Aug. 16, 1998

Discovery Online and R.M.S. Titanic Inc. host a world television and internet simul-cast with LIVE video feed from the wreck site of the 1998 expedition. Discovery reports over 1 million hits per day to the video pages

Sep. 1, 1998

"Titanic" is released on video and sells 3 million copies world wide in 24 hours.

July-August, 2000

R.M.S. Titanic returns to the wreck site with the Keldysh, the submersibles Mir1 and Mir2, the Ocean Intervention, and the S/V Explorer. 28 dives recovered 853 artifacts, "including the ship's wheel and stand that was used to turn the Titanic away from the deadly iceberg, a whistle control timer, the steering wheel stand from the navigation bridge, parts for a watertight door, the main telegraph base with cable and electric switch, the docking bridge telephone, and a capstan controller." Personal artifacts included "a pair of binoculars, a pair of opera glasses, a leather case with sixty-five intact perfume ampoules belonging to first class passenger Mr. Adolphe Saafeld, a bowler hat, a collapsible top hat, first class Stonier & Company demitasse and dinner plate, a camera with eleven bits of Nitrate film, and two first-class, silver plated dishes that were probably used as collection plates during the Sunday services.  Other standout item include a base for a cherub that is likely from the Grand Staircase judging by its size and shape, as well as the first-class staircase garland (two portions of gilded wood that would have been applied to the balustrade).  Nine leather bags were found, including the alligator bag belonging to third class passenger Mrs. Marion Meanwell, and a leather suitcase belonging to Mr. William Henry Allen, whose personal items were tightly, neatly packed.  The total number of artifacts retrieved from the bags is well over one hundred."

Jan. 31, 2001

Michel Navratil, who was just three years old when the Titanic sank, dies in Montpellier, France. He was the last male survivor of the disaster.


 The New York Times
                                                                                                         Titanic Disaster News

 The Denver Times
 Titanic Disaster News                                                                       

Titanic Disaster Aftermath

 
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